Java Servlet and Web Frameworks
What are Java Servlets?
Java servlet is a program that has extended capabilities of a standard server. The Servlet responds to any type of request, but they are commonly used to implement applications that are hosted on Web servers. The Web Servers are Java counterpart to other dynamic Web Content technologies like PHP and ASP.Net. It runs inside JVM on the webserver.
If you like Java programming, then you will be glad to know that it offers a way of generating dynamic webpages. This is through Java servlet. So what are the properties of these servlets?
- They work on the server-side
- They can handle complex requests from the webserver
How servlets are executed
- A request is sent to the webserver by the clients
- The request is received by the webserver
- A corresponding servlet receives the request from the webserver
- The request is processed by the servlet and a response generated in the form of an output
- This response is sent back to the web server by the servlet
- The web server contacts the client with the response. The client browser, in turn, displays it on the screen.
Advantages of Java servlets
- It Is Portable
The Servlet uses Java as the programming language because java is the language which is platform independent, just like the servlets. For instance, it is possible to create a servlet on Windows OS that uses GlassFish as the webserver and run it later on the other Operating Systems like Unix, Linux with Apache tomcat web server. The feature makes the Servlet very advantageous because it is portable.
- It is Scalable and Efficient
When a servlet is positioned and loaded on the webserver, it starts fulfilling the client’s requests immediately. The web server raises Servlet using a lightweight threat so that the client’s requests can be performed instantly using the multithreading feature in Java.
- It is Robust
Having acquired the prime features that are found on Java, the Servlet is not prone to memory management problems or data loss. This makes web development using servlets more secure and reliable because you will rarely get errors therein.
Life Cycle of a Servlet
The main stages in a Servlet life cycle are the four mentioned below;
- Loading the Servlet
This configuration object allows the servlet to access name-value initialization parameters from the web application.
- Initializing the Servlet
In the initialization, the web container initializes the servlet by calling the init method.
- Request handling
The requests are handled in its own separate thread. The container of the web calls the service method of the Servlet for every request.
- Destroying the Servlet
The last stage encompasses the web container calling the destroy method, which takes the Servlet out of service. Just like the init in the initialization stage, the destroy method is also called once in the entire lifecycle.
It is also commonly known as Web Application Framework. It is a software that is developed to support web development applications like web services, web resources, and Web APIs. They provide a standard way to build and deploy web applications on the World Wide Web. They aim to automate the overhead associated with common activities being performed in web development. For Example, most of the web frameworks offer libraries for database access, templating frameworks, and session management, and they often promote reusing of code. The Enterprise Java Beans(EJB) is an example of reusable java code.
There are mainly three types of Web frameworks
- Model-view-controller (MVC)
Most frameworks follow the MVC architectural pattern to separate the data model with business rules from the UI. This is among the best practices as it modularizes code, promotes code reuse, and then allow multiple interfaces that are applied.
- Three-tier organization
In this organization, the applications are structured around three physical tiers that include: client, application, and database. The applications contain the business logic, running on a server and communicates with the client using HTTP.
- General-purpose Website frameworks
The web frameworks function according to the architectural rules of browsers and web protocols like HTTP, which is stateless.
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